Course Description

Course Structure and Requirements

Readings

Class Schedule

 

 

Availability of Readings: The books will be available in boxes on the shelf in 107 (the room next to Lincoln Field 105) and a copy of the readings will be sent digitally. 

Class 5: February 19, 2014

1.  Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology:  Chapter 5: The role of Volatiles.
2.  Moon: Pyroclastic Volcanism on a ‘Dry’ Planetary Body. 

Following the reading of Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology:  Chapter 5: The role of Volatiles, we will consider how pyroclastic eruptions might occur on the Moon: What is the evidence for them on the Moon and how do they work in the framework of what we know about the Earth?

In the coming class, we will finish the presentations from previous classes and then turn to a discussion of the mode of occurrence and the processes responsible for lunar pyroclastic deposits.  This will be a general discussion, led by myself and Erica Jawin, and centered on the questions listed below.  Please scan and read the following papers that are denoted by the **, and guide your reading with the set of questions.  The class schedule is at the end of this memo:

Readings: Pyroclastic Deposits and Processes
(** denotes most important reference for class discussion)

Description and Distribution of Deposits:
614 - Gaddis, L. R., C. M. Pieters, and B. R. Hawke (1985), Remote sensing of lunar pyroclastic mantling deposits, Icarus 61, 461-489. 

Gaddis, Lisa R., B. Ray Hawke, Mark S. Robinson, and Cassandra Coombs (2000), Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 4245-4262.

**Gaddis, Lisa R., Matthew I. Staid, James A. Tyburczy, B. Ray Hawke, and Noah E. Petro (2003), Compositional analyses of lunar pyroclastic deposits, Icarus 161, 262–280.

Characteristics of Pyroclastic Deposits:  
**2064 - Weitz, C. M., M. J. Rutherford, J. W. Head, and D. S. McKay (1999), Ascent and eruption of a lunar high-titanium magma as inferred from the petrology of the 74001/2 drill core, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 34, 527-540.

Besse, S., J. M. Sunshine, and L. R. Gaddis (2014), Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, doi:10.1002/ 2013JE004537.

Origin of Volatiles:
**Rutherford, M. J. and P. Papale (2009), Origin of basalt fire-fountain eruptions on Earth versus the Moon, Geology, 37, 219-222.

**Saal, Alberto E., Erik H. Hauri, Mauro L. Cascio, James A. Van Orman, Malcolm C. Rutherford & Reid F. Cooper (2008), Volatile content of lunar volcanic glasses and the presence of water in the Moon's interior, Nature 454, 192-195 doi:10.1038/nature07047.

**2727 - Wilson, L., and J. W. Head (2003), Deep generation of magmatic gas on the Moon and implications for pyroclastic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (12), 1605, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016082.

Pyroclastic Eruption Types:
246 Head, J. W. and L. Wilson (1979), Alphonsus-type dark-halo craters: Morphology, morphometry, and eruption conditions, Proceedings of the Tenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2861-2897.

2063 - Head, J. W., C. M. Weitz, and L. Wilson (2002), Dark ring in Southwestern Orientale Basin: Origin as a single pyroclastic eruption, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (E1), doi: 10.1029/2000JE001438.

2053 - Weitz, C. M., J. W. Head, and C. M. Pieters (1998), Lunar regional dark mantle deposits: Geologic, multispectral, and modeling studies, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22,725-22,759.

**Wilson, L., J. W. Head, and A. R. Tye (2014), Lunar regional pyroclastic deposits: Evidence for eruption from dikes emplaced into the near-surface crust, Lunar Planet. Sci., XLV, abstract 1223.

Site of interest: http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/geology/moon-pyroclastic-volcanism-project

Specific Questions: Discussion of Pyroclastic Eruptions: All (Led by Jim and Erica)

1) What are the different types of pyroclastic deposits on the Moon?

2) What is their mode of occurrence and their associated features?

3) What is their distribution in time and space? 

4) What do the characteristics of these different types of deposits imply about eruption conditions on the Moon?

5) What do the pyroclastic deposits explored by the Apollo astronauts look like and what does this tell us about eruption conditions?

6) What are the types of volatiles that might drive pyroclastic eruptions on the Moon?

7) What processes are responsible for the formation of volatiles that might power lunar pyroclastic eruptions? 

8)  How can we infer the volatile content of magmas from the dispersal patterns of pyroclastic deposits?  

9) What are the petrogenetic pathways between extrusive mare basalts and co-located pyroclastic deposits?

10) How can the origin of lunar pyroclastics be used to guide our thinking about explosive eruptions on other planetary bodies, such as Mercury, Venus and Mars?

Class Schedule: Wednesday, February 19th, 2014:
3:00-3:25 PM:  Kimberlites: Erica Jawin.

3:25-3:50 PM: History of Mare Volcanism:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: James Cassanelli

3:50-4:15 PM: Mare Volcanism In the Orientale Basin and Implications for Mare Basalt Petrogenesis: A case study:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: David Weiss

4:15-5:20 PM: Moon: Pyroclastic Volcanism on a ‘Dry’ Planetary Body: Discussion Leaders: Jim Head and Erica Jawin

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Class 4: February 12th: Magma Storage:  

Chapter 4: Magma Storage:
Discussion 4: History of Lunar Volcanism and the Role of Thermal Evolution.

In this Wednesday’s class, following the discussion of the kimberlites paper (honest!), summarized by Erica, we will do several things.  First, we will delve into processes of magma storage (evidence for magma storage within the crust, formation and growth of magma reservoirs, and magma reservoirs and their impact on volcanic systems), as embodied in Chapter 4 in Fundamental of Physical Volcanology.  As usual, I will begin this part of the class with an overview of this chapter and will discuss examples of these processes.

Secondly, we will then turn our attention back to the Moon, and continue the discussion we had in last class and we will continue in the next class.  As we saw last time, on the Moon, due to the lack of an atmosphere and the absence of plate tectonics, we will be able to study nearly the entire history of volcanism as seen in the surface geological record.  What types of volcanism are seen on a “one-plate planet” such as the Moon, a planetary body dominated by a single globally coherent lithosphere?  What styles of volcanism dominate and how are they globally distributed?  What does this mean for process of magma ascent and eruption?  We addressed many of these issues in the last class. 

In this class we will consider many of the following questions: What changes do we see in the 4+ billion year exposed record of lunar volcanism? What is the flux of mare basalt volcanism and how does this relate to overall planetary thermal evolution, a topic we touched on at the end of the last class.  What is the diversity of volcanism?  Is it all basaltic or is their more diversity, as suggested by the high-albedo steep-sided domes?  How do styles and rates change with time?  Is there any evidence for current volcanic activity on the Moon?  What is the interplay of tectonics and volcanism, so important for the Earth, on the Moon?  What does the geological record tell us about the thermal evolution of the Moon and the composition, homogeneity and heterogeneity of the mantle?  What are the major petrogenetic environments and themes on the Moon? What is the origin of mare basalts?

To address these questions, we will have three reports on the following papers:

1. Erica Jawin: The record of mare volcanism and relation to lunar thermal evolution: Hiesinger, H., J. W. Head, U. Wolf, R. Jaumann, and G. Neukum (2011), Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts: A synthesis, in Recent Advances and Current Research Issues in Lunar Stratigraphy, edited by W. A. Ambrose and D. A. Williams, pp. 1-51, Geological Society of America Special Paper 477.

2.  David Weiss: The distribution of mare volcanism in a young impact basin and implications for global distribution and origin of mare basalts: Whitten, J., J. W. Head III, M. I. Staid, C. M. Pieters, J. F. Mustard, R. Clark, J. W. Nettles, R. L. Klima, and L. A. Taylor (2011), Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1, J. Geophys. Res., 116, E00G09, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003736.

3. Will Vaughan: Evidence for petrologic diversity: The high albedo ‘red spot’ deposits:  Among the resources:

Wilson, L., and J. W. Head (2003), Lunar Gruithuisen and Mairan domes: Rheology and mode of emplacement, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (E2), 5012, doi: 10.1029/2002JE001909, 2003.

Wagner, R., J. W. Head III, U. Wolf, and G. Neukum (2002), Stratigraphic sequence and ages of volcanic units in the Gruithuisen region of the Moon, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (E11), 5104, doi: 10.1029/2002JE001844.

Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010), Highly silicic compositions on the Moon, Science 329, 1510-1513.

Jolliff, B. et al. (2011), Non-mare silicic volcanism on the lunar farside at Compton-Belkovich, Nature Geoscience, 4, 566-571. 

Class Schedule: Wednesday, February 14th, 2014:
3:00-3:15 PM:  Honing critical observational skills: Describe a plutonic/volcanic rock and interpret its origin and evolution. 

3:15-3:40 PM:  Kimberlites: Erica Jawin.

3:40-4:00 PM:  Review of Chapter 3: Magma Migration: and discussion.  Jim Head. 

Primary Reading
4:00-4:25 PM: History of Mare Volcanism:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: Erica Jawin

4:25-4:50 PM: Mare Volcanism In the Orientale Basin and Implications for Mare Basalt Petrogenesis: A case study:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: David Weiss

4:50-5:20 PM: Evidence for Petrogenetic Diversity and Implications for Petrogenesis:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: Will Vaughan

Remember that you need to send me suggestions for your volcanism research paper, and that this needs to be finalized by this Friday, February 14th. 

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February 5th: Magma Migration and the Moon:   

Chapter 3: Magma Migration.
Discussion 3:  Moon: Volcanic Styles and Modes of Emplacement on a One-Plate Planet. 
 

As we saw in the last class and in the related reading, on Earth, plate tectonic environments (primarily divergent and convergent boundaries) dominate the location and distribution of volcanic eruptions, their style and their intrusion-to-extrusion ratios at present and in the recent past.  However, the Earth has not always been like this (volcanism dominated by plate boundary processes and rates of these magnitudes) and we discussed evidence for many instances of anomalous fluxes of volcanism. These took the form of 1) deposits called Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), huge outpourings of lava that create unusual effects on the oceanic, continental and atmospheric environments, 2) variations in the change of flux and composition over the longer-term thermal evolution of Earth, and 3) Unusual, deep-sourced virtually instantaneous eruptions know as kimberlites (we will finish the discussion of these in this Wednesday’s class). We saw that early Earth is characterized by the occurrences of komatiites, thought by many to be formed by high degrees of partial melting in their source regions, plausibly linked to higher mantle temperatures and heat flux in earlier Earth history (the Archean).

In this Wednesday’s class, following the discussion of the kimberlites paper, summarized by Erica, we will do several things.  First, we will delve into processes of magma migration (diapiric rise of melt, the transition from diapiric rise to dike formation, dike propagation, and the trapping of dikes and the consequences), as embodied in Chapter 3 in Fundamental of Physical Volcanology.   I will begin this part of the class with an overview of this chapter and will discuss examples of these processes.

Secondly, we will then turn our attention from the Earth to the Moon, and begin the discussion that we will have over the next three classes.  On the Moon, due to the lack of an atmosphere and the absence of plate tectonics, we will be able to study nearly the entire history of volcanism as seen in the surface geological record.  What changes do we see in the 4+ billion year exposed record of lunar volcanism?  What types of volcanism are seen on a “one-plate planet” such as the Moon, a planetary body dominated by a single globally coherent lithosphere?  What styles of volcanism dominate and how are they globally distributed? Can pyroclastic activity occur on a planetary body thought to be as dry as the Moon? What rates of volcanism characterize the Moon?  How do styles and rates change with time?  Is there any evidence for current volcanic activity on the Moon?  What is the interplay of tectonics and volcanism, so important for the Earth, on the Moon?  What does the geological record tell us about the thermal evolution of the Moon and the composition, homogeneity and heterogeneity of the mantle?  What are the major petrogenetic environments and themes on the Moon? How does all of this compare to the Earth?  I will make a summary presentation on the distribution and characteristics of lunar volcanic deposits, and this will be followed by presentation and discussion of the main class readings: 

1.  Shuai LiHead, J.W. and L. Wilson, Lunar mare volcanism: Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 2155-2175, 1992. Shuai will focus on the latter half, bottom of p. 2160 on, Thermal evolution, stress history tectonic association to the end of the paper.  

Additional Voluntary Readings for Background as Needed, Specific Interests, Broad Perspective and Future Reference:

1.  Wilson, L. and J. W. Head, Ascent and eruption of basaltic magma on the Earth and Moon, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 2971-3001, 1981.

2.  Head, J. W., Lunar volcanism in space and time, Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 14, 265-300, 1976.

3.  Hiesinger, H. and J. W. Head (2006) New views of lunar geoscience: An introduction and overview, in New Views of the Moon, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, edited by B. Jolliff and M. Wiezcorek, pp. 1-81.

Class Schedule: Wednesday, February 5th, 2014:
3:00-3:15 PM:  Honing critical observational skills: Describe a plutonic/volcanic rock and interpret its origin and evolution. 

3:15-3:40 PM:  Kimberlites: Erica Jawin.

3:40-4:15 PM:  Review of Chapter 3: Magma Migration: and discussion.  Jim Head. 

4:15-4:50 PM: Volcanism on the Moon: An Overview: and discussion.  Jim Head

Primary Reading
4:50-5:20 PM:  Ascent and eruption of basaltic magma on the Earth and Moon:  Presenter and Discussion Leader: Shuai Li.

Please be sure to look in detail at the amazing book on lava flows by the Russian photographer friend of Sasha’s; the book is on the desk in LF 105.

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January 29:
1. LIPS:

Primary Reading: David Weiss
Large Igneous Provinces: Crustal Structure, Dimensions, and External Consequences (Millard Coffin and Olav Eldholm).

Secondary Reading:
Large Igneous Provinces: A Planetary Perspective (James Head and Millard Coffin).

2. Komatiites: James Cassanelli

Primary Reading:
Komatiites: Chapter 29: The tectonic Setting and Petrogenesis of Komatiites (E. G. Nisbet).

Secondary Reading:
Komatiites: Chapter 9: Physical Volcanology (S. J. Barnes and C. M.Lesher).

3. Kimberlites: Erica Jawen

Wilson, L., and J. W. Head (2007), An integrated model of kimberlite ascent and eruption, Nature, 447, 53-57, doi: 10.1038/nature05692.