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The Origin and Evolution of the Moon

Academic Graduate-level Course

Before November 4th: EDT (UT-4)
After November 4th: EST (UT-5)

Lecture: 1 hour; Discussion: 30 minutes

Semester 1 - Fall 2018
Lincoln Field Building, Room 105

General Reading List

Class 1: September 5, 3:00 PM EDT: Transformative Lunar Science: Carle Pieters, Robin Canup, David Kring, James Head, David Scott.

Slides for the "Transformative Lunar Science" Video (except movies). (PDF)


Class 2: September 12, 3:00 PM EDT: The History of Lunar Exploration: Jim Head (Brown)

Chertok, B., 2011.  Rockets and People:  The Moon Race.  The NASA History Series, NASA SP-2011-4110, vol. IV, Siddiqi, A. A. (series ed.), 663 pp.  (PDF).

Compton, W. D., 1989.  Where No Man Has Gone Before:  A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions.  The NASA History Series, NASA SP-4214, 415 pp.  (PDF).

Harvey, B., 2007. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, and Prospects, Spring-Verlag, New York. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-49664-1.

Harvey, B., 2007. Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration, Springer-Praxis, doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73976-2.

History of Lunar Exploration. (Link)

Huntress Jr., W., V. Moroz, and I. Shevalev, 2003, Lunar and Planetary Robitc Exploration Missions in the 20th Century, Space Science Reviews 1007, 541-649, doi: 10.1023/A:1026172301375. (PDF)

Huntress Jr., W. T., and M. Ya. Marov, 2011, Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer-Verlag, New York, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1. (PDF)

Logsdon, J. M. (ed.), Launius, R. D., 2008.  Exploring the Unknown:  Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program.  Human Spaceflight:  Projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, vol. VII, The NASA History Series, NASA SP-2008-4407, 857 pp.  (PDF)

Swanson, G. E. (ed.), 1999.  “Before This Decade is Out. . .”: Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program.  The NASA History Series, NASA SP-4223, 408 pp.  (PDF).

Ranger 7-8-9 Movie Compilation. (MOV)(406MB)

Schmitt, H. H., 2018. Apollo 17: Diary of the 12th Man. (link)


Class 3: September 19, 3:00 PM EDT: The Formation of the Moon: Current Scenarios: Robin Canup (SWRI)

Pahlevan, K, and D. J. Stevenson, 2007. Equilibration in the aftermath of the lunar-forming gian impact. Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters 262, 438-449, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.055. (PDF).

Salmon, J., and R. M. Canup, 2012. Lunar accretion from a Roche-interior fluid disk. The Astrophysical Journal 760, 1-18, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/83. (PDF).

Cuk, M., and S. T. Stewart, 2012. Making the Moon from a fast-spinning Earth: A gian impact followed by resonant despinning. Science 338, 1047-1052, doi: 10.1126/science.1225542. (PDF)

Canup, R. M., 2012. Forming a moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact. Science 338, 1052-1055, doi: 10.1126/science.1226073. (PDF)

Canup, R. M., 2013. Lunar conspiracies. Nature 504, 27-29. (PDF)

Rufu, R., O. Aharanson, and H. B. Perets, 2017. A multiple-impact origin for the Moon. Nature Geoscience 10, 89-94, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2866. (PDF)


Class 4: September 26, 3:00 PM EDT: Formation of the Lunar Crust and the Aftermath: The Magma Ocean Hypothesis: Marc Parmentier (Brown)

Timothy L. Grove, T. L., and M. J. Krawczynski (2009), Lunar Mare Volcanism: Where Did the Magmas Come From? Elements, 5, 29-34, doi: 10.2113/gselements.5.1.29.  (PDF)

Hess, P.C., and  E.M. Parmentier (1995), A model for the thermal and chemical evolution of the Moon’s interior: implications for the onset of mare volcanism, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 134, 501-514.  (PDF)

Mark A. Wieczorek, M. A. (2009), The Interior Structure of the Moon: What Does Geophysics Have to Say? Elements, 5, 35-40, doi: 10.2113/gselements.5.1.35. (PDF)

Taylor, G. J. (2009), Ancient Lunar Crust: Origin, Composition, and Implications, Elements, 5, 17-22, doi: 10.2113/gselements.5.1.17.  (PDF)

C.-E. Boukaré, C.-E., E.M. Parmentier, and S.W. Parman (2018), Timing of mantle overturn during magma ocean solidification, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 491, 216-225, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.03.037. (PDF)

Scheinberg, A. L., K. M. Soderlund, and L. T. Elkins-Tanton (2018), A basal magma ocean dynamo to explain the early lunar magnetic field, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 492, 144-151, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.015.  (PDF)

Evans, A. J., M. T. Zuber, B. P. Weiss, and S. M. Tikoo (2014), A wet, heterogeneous lunar interior: Lower mantle and core dynamo evolution, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, 1061–1077, doi:10.1002/2013JE004494.  (PDF)


Class 5: OCTOBER 3: The Structure of the Lunar Crust, Mantle and Core: Maria Zuber (MIT)

Andrews-Hanna, J.C., J. Besserer, J.W. Head III, C.J.A. Howett, W.S. Kiefer, P.J. Lucey, P.J. McGovern, H.J. Melosh, G.A. Neumann, P,M. Schenk, R.J. Phillips, D.E. Smith, S.C. Solomon, and M.T. Zuber, 2014, Structure and evolution of the Procellarum region of the Moon as revealed by GRAIL gravity data, Nature, 514, 68-71, doi:10.1038/nature13697. (PDF)

Sori, M.M., P.B. James, B.C. Johnson, J.M. Soderblom, S.C. Solomon, M.A. Wieczorek, and M.T. Zuber, 2018, Isostatic compensation of the lunar highlands, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 123, 646-665, doi: 19.1002/2017JE005362. (PDF)

Wieczorek, M.A., G.A. Neumann, F. Nimmo, W.S. Kiefer, G.J. Taylor, H.J. Melosh, R.J. Phillips, S.C. Solomon, J.C. Andrews-Hanna, S.W. Asmar, A.S. Konopliv, F.G. Lemoine, D.E. Smith, M.M. Watkins, J.G. Williams, and M.T. Zuber, 2013, The crust of the Moon as seen by GRAIL, Science, 339, doi: 10.1126/science.1231530. (PDF)

Williams, J.G., A.S. Konopliv, D.H. Boggs, R.S. Park, D.-N. Yuan, F.G. Lemoine, S.J. Goossens, E. Mazarico, F. Nimmo, R.C. Weber, S.W. Asmar, H.J. Melosh, G.A, Neumann, R.J. Phillips, D.E. Smith, S.C. Solomon, M.M. Watkins, M.A. Wieczorek, J.C. Andrews-Hanna, J.W. Head, W.S. Kiefer, I. Matsuyama, P.J. McGovern, G.J. Taylor, and M.T. Zuber, 2014, Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL mission, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, doi: 10.1002/2013JE004559,1546–1578. (PDF)

Zuber, M.T., D.E. Smith, M.M. Watkins, S.W. Asmar, A.S. Konopliv, F.G. Lemoine, H.J. Melosh, G.A. Neumann, R.J. Phillips, S.C. Solomon, M.A. Wieczorek, J.G. Williams, S.J. Goossens, G. Kruizinga, E. Mazarico, R.S. Park, and D.-N. Yuan, 2013, Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, Science, 339, doi: 10.1126/science.1231507. (PDF)


Class 6: OCTOBER 10: The Lunar Cratering Record and the Late Heavy Bombardment: Bill Bottke (SWRI)

Andrews-Hanna, J. C., J. Besserer, J. W. Head III, C. J. A. Howett, W. S. Kiefer, P. J. Lucey, P. J. McGovern, H. J. Melosh, G. A. Neumann, R. J. Phillips, P. M. Schenk, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, and M. T. Zuber, 2014, Structure and evolution of the lunar Procellarum region as revealed by GRAIL gravity data, Nature, 514, 68-71, doi: 10.1038/nature13697. (PDF)

Bottke, W. F., and J. Andrews Hanna, 2017. A post accretionary impact lull in large impacts on Mars. Nature Geosci. 10, 344-348. (PDF)

Bottke, W. F., M. Norman, 2017. The Late Heavy Bombardment. Annual Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 45, 619-647. (PDF)

Clement, M. S., Kaib, N. A., Raymond, S. N., Walsh, K. J. 2018. Mars' growth stunted by an early giant planet instability. Icarus 311, 340-356. (PDF)

Evans, A. J., Andrews-Hanna, J. C., Head, J. W., Soderblom, J. M., Solomon, S. C., Zuber, M. T. 2018. Reexamination of Early Lunar Chronology With GRAIL Data: Terranes, Basins, and Impact Fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) 123, 1596-1617, doi: 10.1029/2017JE005421. (PDF)

Fassett, C. I., Minton, D. A. 2013. Impact bombardment of the terrestrial planets and the early history of the Solar System. Nature Geoscience 6, 520-524. (PDF)


Class 7: OCTOBER 17: The Highlands Rock Suite: Clues to Early Lunar Evolution: Clive Neal (Notre Dame)

Borg, L. E., J. N. Connelly, M. Boyet, and R. W. Carlson, 2011, Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean, Nature 477, doi:10.1038/nature10328.  (PDF)

Carlson, R.W., L. E. Borg, A. M. Ganey, and M. Boyet, 2014, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: The age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372: 20130246, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0246.  (PDF)

James, O. B., M. M. Lindstrom, and M. K. Flohr, 1989, Ferroan anorthosite from lunar breccia 64435:  Implications for the origin and history of lunar ferroan anorthosites, Proceedings of the 19th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 219-243. (PDF)

Marks, N., L. Borg, A. Gaffney, C. Shearer, and P. Burger, 2014, Additional evidence for young ferroan anorthositic magmatism on the Moon from Sm-Nd isotopic measurements of 60016 clast 3A, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 45, abstract 1129.  (PDF)

Togashi, S., N. T. Kita, A. Tomiya, and Y. Morishita, 2017, Magmatic evolution of lunar highland rocks estimated from trace elements in plagioclase: A new bulk silicate Moon model with sub-chondritic Ti/Ba, Sr/Ba, and Sr/Al ratios, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 210, 152–183, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.04.031.  (PDF)

Torcivia, M.A., and C. R. Neal, 2018, Ferroan Anorthosite 60025 – A Lunar Breccia, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 49, abstract 1331.  (PDF)


OCTOBER 24: Lunar Mare Volcanism: The Emplacement of Secondary Crust: Jim Head (Brown)

Braden, S.E., Stopar, J.D., Robinson, M.S., Lawrence, S.J., van der Bogert, C.H., and Hiesinger, H., 2014, Evidence for basaltic volcanism on the Moon within the past 100 million years: Nature Geoscience, v. 7, p. 787–791, doi:10.1038/ngeo2252. (PDF)

Hauri, E.H., Saal, A.E., Rutherford, M.J., and Van Orman, J.A., 2015, Water in the Moon’s interior: Truth and consequences: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 409, p. 252–264, doi:10.1016/j .epsl.2014.10.053. (PDF)

Head, J. W., and L. Wilson (1992), Lunar mare volcanism: Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 2155-2175. (PDF)

Head III, J. W., and L. Wilson (2017), Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (part 2: observations), Icarus, 283, 176-223, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.05.031. (PDF)

Hiesinger, H., J. W. Head, U. Wolf, R. Jaumann, and G. Neukum (2011), Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts: A synthesis, in Recent Advances and Current Research Issues in Lunar Stratigraphy, edited by W. A. Ambrose and D. A. Williams, pp. 1-51, Geological Society of America Special Paper 477. (PDF)

Hurwitz, D. M., J. W. Head III, and H. Hiesinger (2013), Lunar sinuous rilles: Distribution, characteristics, and implications for their origin, Planet. Space Sci., 79-80, 1-38, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2012.10.019. (PDF)

Jozwiak, L. M., J. W. Head III, M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, and G. A. Neumann (2012), Lunar floor-fractured craters: Classification, distribution, origin and implications for magmatism and shallow crustal structure, J. Geophys. Res., 117, E11005, doi: 10.1029/2012JE004134. (PDF)

Jozwiak, L. M., J. W. Head III, and L. Wilson (2015), Lunar floor-fractured craters as magmatic intrusions: Geometry, modes of emplacement, associated tectonic and volcanic features, and implications for gravity anomalies, Icarus, 248, 424-447, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.052. (PDF)

Jozwiak, L. M., J. W. Head III, G. A. Neumann, and L. Wilson (2017), Observational constraints on the identification of shallow lunar magmatism: Insights from floor-fractured craters, Icarus, 283, 224-231, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.04.020. (PDF)

Needham, D. H., and D. A. Kring (2017), Lunar volcanism produced a transient atmosphere around the ancient Moon, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 478, 175-178, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.002. (PDF)

Qiao, L., J. W. Head III, L. Wilson, L. Xiao, and J. D. Dufek (2017), Ina pit crater on the Moon: Extrusion of waning-stage lava lake magmatic foam results in extremely young crater retention ages, Geology, 45, 455-458, doi: 10.1130/G38594.1. (PDF)

Rutherford, M. J., J. W. Head III, A. E. Saal, E. H. Hauri, and L. Wilson (2017), Model for the origin, ascent and eruption of lunar picritic magmas, American Mineralogist, 102, 2045-2053, doi: 10.2138/am-2017-5994. (PDF)

Taylor, S. R. (1989) Growth of planetary crusts, Tectonophysics 161, 147-156. (PDF)

Wilson, L., and J. W. Head III (2017), Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 1: Theory), Icarus, 283, 146-175, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.12.039. (PDF)

Wilson, L., and J. W. Head III (2017), Eruption of magmatic foams on the Moon: Formation in the waning stages of dike emplacement events as an explanation of "irregular mare patches", Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 335, 113-127, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.02.009. (PDF)

Wilson, L., and J. W. Head III (2018), Controls on lunar basaltic volcanic eruption structure and morphology: Gas release patterns in sequential eruption phases, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 5852-5859, doi: 10.1029/2018GL078327. (PDF)

Zhang, F., J. W. Head III, A. T. Basilevsky, R. Bugiolacchi, G. Komatsu, L. Wilson, W. Fa, and M.-H. Zhu (2017), Newly discovered ring-moat dome structures in the lunar maria: Possible origins and implications, Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 9216-9224, doi: 10.1002/2017GL074416. (PDF)


OCTOBER 31: Lunar Impact Cratering and Formation of Impact Basins: Gordon Osinski (University of Western Ontario) and Brandon Johnson (Brown)

Johnson, B. C., D. M. Blair, G. S. Collins, H. J. Melosh, A. M. Freed, G. J. Taylor, J. W. Head III, M. A. Wieczorek, J. C. Andrews-Hanna, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, K. Miljkovic, J. M. Soderblom, and M. T. Zuber (2016), Formation of the Orientale lunar multiring basin, Science, 354, 441-444, doi: 10.1126/science.aag0519. (PDF)

Kring, D. A., G. Y. Kramer, G. S. Collins, R. W. K. Potter, and M. Chandnani (2016), Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin, Nature Communications7, 13161, doi: 10.1038/ncomms13161 (PDF)

Morgan, J. V., S. P. S. Gulick, T. Bralower, E. Chenot, G. Christeson, P. Claeys, C. Cockell, G. S. Collins, M. J. L. Coolen, L. Ferrière, C. Gebhardt, K. Goto, H. Jones, D. A. Kring, E. Le Ber, J. Lofi, X. Long, C. Lowery, C. Mellett, R. Ocampo-Torres, G. R. Osinski, L. Perez-Cruz, A. Pickersgill, M. Poelchau, A. Rae, C. Rasmussen, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra, U. Riller, H. Sato, D. R. Schmitt, J. Smit, S. Tikoo, N. Tomioka, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, M. Whalen, A. Wittmann, K. E. Yamaguchi, and W. Zylberman (2016). The formation of peak rings in large impact craters. Science354 (6314), 878–882, doi: 10.1126/science.aah6561. (PDF)

Osinski G. R., and E. Pierazzo (2012), Processes and products of impact cratering: An overview. In: Impact Cratering: Processes and Products (Eds. Osinski G. R. and Pierazzo E.). Wiley Blackwell: Oxford. pp. 1–20. (PDF)

Osinski G. R., R. A. F. Grieve, J. E. Bleacher, C. D. Neish, E. A. Pilles, and L. L. Tornabene (2018), Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact, Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research, 353, 25–54. (PDF)

Osinski G. R., L. L. Tornabene, and R. A. F. Grieve (2011), Impact ejecta emplacement on terrestrial planets, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310, 167–181. (PDF)


NOVEMBER 14: Origin and Evolution of the Lunar Magnetic Field: Sonia Tikoo (Rutgers) and Ben Weiss (MIT)

Weiss, B. P., and S. M. Tikoo (2014), The lunar dynamo, Science, 346, doi: 10.1126/science.1246753. (PDF)

Wieczorek, M. A., B. P. Weiss, D. Breuer, D. Cébron, M. Fuller, I. Garrick-Bethell, J. Gattacceca, J. S. Halekas, D. J. Hemingway, L. L. Hood, M. Laneuville, F. Nimmo, R. Oran, M. E. Purucker, T. Rückriemen, K. M. Soderlund, and S. M. Tikoo (2018), Lunar magnetisim, in New Views of the Moon 2, in review. (PDF)


NOVEMBER 28: Models for the Thermal Evolution of the Moon: Lindy Elkins-Tanton (ASU)

Elkins-Tanton, L. T. (2012), Magma oceans I the inner solar system, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40, 113-139. (PDF)

Elkins-Tanton, L., S. Burgess, and Q.-Z. Yin (2011), The lunar magma ocean:  Reconciling the solidification process with lunar petrology and geochronology, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 304, 326-336, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.004. (PDF)

Hess, P. C., and E. M. Parmentier (1995), A model for the thermal and chemical evolution of the Moon’s interior:  Implications for the onset of mare volcanism, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 134, 501-514. (PDF)

Touboul, M., T. Kleine, B. Bourdon, H. Palme, and R Wieler (2007), Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals, Nature, 450, 1206-1209, doi: 10.1038/nature06428. (PDF)

DECEMBER 5: Lunar Polar Deposits and Surface Water: Dana Hurley (JHUAPL) and Ralph Milliken (Brown)

Arnold, J. R. (1979). "Ice in the lunar polar regions." Journal of Geophysical Research 84(B10). (PDF)

Colaprete, A., P. Schultz, J. Heldmann, D. Wooden, M. Shirley, K. Ennico, B. Hermalyn, W. Marshall, A. Ricco, R. C. Elphic, D. Goldstein, D. Summy, G. D. Bart, E. Asphaug, D. Korycansky, D. Landis, and L. Sollitt, 2010, Detection of water in the LCROSS ejecta plume, Science 330(6003), 463-468. (PDF)

Fisher, E. A., P. G. Lucey, M. Lemelin, B. T. Greenhagen, M. A. Siegler, E. Mazarico, O. Aharonson, J.-P. Williams, P. O. Hayne, G. A. Neumann, D. A. Paige, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber (2017), Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Icarus, 292, 74-85, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.03.023. (PDF)

Lawrence, D. J. (2017). "A tale of two poles: Toward understanding the presence, distribution, and origin of volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon and Mercury, J. Geophys. Res., 122, 21-52, doi: 10.1002/2016JE005167. (PDF)

Li, S., P. G. Lucey, R. E. Milliken, P. O. Hayne, E. Fisher, J.-P. Williams, D. M. Hurley, and R. C. Elphic, 2018, Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 8907-8912, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1802345115. (PDF)

Li, S., and R. E. Milliken, 2017, Water on the Moon as seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Distribution, abundance and origins, Science Advances, 3, e1701471. (PDF)

Watson, K., B. C. Murray, and H. Brown, 1961, The behavior of volatiles on the lunar surface, J. Geophys. Res. 66(9), 3033-3052. (PDF)

DECEMBER 19: Future Exploration of the Moon: The Road Ahead: Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison "Jack" Schmitt

Schmitt, H. H., 2018. Apollo 17: Diary of the 12th Man. (link)

Schmitt, H. H., N. E. Petro, R. A. Wells, M. S. Robinson, B. P. Weiss, and C. M. Mercer (2017), Revisiting the filed geology of Taurus-Littrow, Icarus, 298, 2-33. (PDF).